If you carefully analyze the above examples of training programs, you will notice that in the dynamics of changes in the training methodology, there was comprare steroidi online rischi a constant tendency to increase the gap between repeated workouts of muscle groups.
The classic 3-day technique involved training muscle groups 3 times a week, with an interval of rest of one day. For example, if you trained the pectoral muscles on Monday, repeated training of the pectoral muscles was carried out on Wednesday, and only one day was allocated for the restoration of pectoral muscles, in this example, Tuesday.
A more progressive method is the classic 4-day split, which involved 4 workouts per week when working out each muscle group 2 times a week, with an interval of re-training of each group in 3-4 days.
In addition to increasing the rest intervals between workouts of muscle groups up to 4-5 days, the variability of the training load itself was also used. One training was carried out with a «heavy» load, the next — with a «light» load. That is, the muscle group was worked out hard once every 8-10 days. In more detail, we will consider the variability of the training load in the following chapters, and now we continue to consider the topic of the speed of recovery of skeletal muscles.
What caused this change in the increase in the duration of rest intervals between repeated trainings of muscle groups? On the one hand, the increase in rest intervals was caused by the successful experiments of individual athletes who intuitively felt that the proposed training schemes did not provide them with a full recovery between workouts.
On the other hand, scientific studies of the processes occurring in the muscle, both during exercise and during the recovery period after extreme and near-ultimate loads, have influenced to a greater extent the increase in rest intervals.
People who are at least slightly associated with physical activity know that pain occurs after an intense training load in the muscles. When conducting scientific research, this type of pain got its own name — delayed muscle pain or, in short, OMB.
The presence of delayed muscle pain indicates that the muscles received an unusual load and destructive processes occurred in them. The bodybuilder consciously seeks to cause destruction in the muscles, because, following the principle of supercompensation, the greater the destruction — the greater the subsequent recovery. But, as we already know, destruction should be significant only to a certain extent. That is why there is no need to constantly perform work until complete muscular exhaustion.
What happens in the muscles after the work of near-ultimate and ultimate intensity? Scientific studies of this issue have shown that delayed muscle pain (OMB) appears 8-12 hours after exercise, reaches a maximum on average 24-72 hours, and then disappears within 5-12 days. During pain, the muscles become sensitive to touch, their extensibility decreases, and with sharp movements, the pain intensifies. Pain can be accompanied by reactions similar to inflammatory ones: swelling, an increase in temperature and muscle hardness occur. With pain, a decrease in the amplitude of movements, muscle strength in isometric and concentric modes is observed.
Microscopic studies of muscle tissue samples taken from people with OMB revealed a number of structural changes, both in the muscle cells themselves and in the intercellular space. As a rule, immediately after the exercises causing OMB, these changes are either not detected or weakly expressed. I ask you to pay particular attention to this fact: structural changes in the muscle immediately after work are either not detected or weakly expressed. Quicker contracting muscle fibers are subject to stronger structural changes.
Complete restoration of normal muscle ultrastructure occurs within approximately 10 days. An interesting fact that allows us to understand why the breaks between hard workouts of the same muscle group are usually 8-10 days.
The following injuries occur in the contractile apparatus: longitudinal sections of biopsy specimens show pronounced violations of the pattern of striated striation of skeletal muscle tissue. Sarcomere disks undergo the most significant damage (each myofibril consists of several hundreds of sarcomeres connected in series). They expand greatly and take the form of a developing tape. Z-disk material is distributed throughout the sarcomere. In severe injuries, ruptures of Z-disks, sarcolemma and muscle fibers themselves can be observed after 2-3 days.
Skeletal muscle structure
Muscle fiber structure
Myofibril consists of identical repeating elements,
the so-called sarcomeres. The sarcomer is limited on both sides by Z-disks.
These discs are attached on both sides.
thin actin filaments.
I want to appeal to people who train hard every muscle group in 2-3 days: how can you count on muscle growth if, after 2-3 days after hard work, not only muscle recovery does not occur, but even destructive processes in the muscle continue to occur fabric?
In the intercellular space, 1-3 days after hard work, necrotic fibers can be observed. Sometimes, immediately after exercise, free red blood cells and mitochondria are detected, which are likely to leave the muscle cell through an damaged sarcolemma. After a few days, phagocytes, macrophages, satellite cells are detected. All this indicates the activation of the body’s immune system.
The concentration of muscle enzymes in the blood increases, which may indicate a destruction of the membrane of muscle fibers or a change in its permeability. The maximum concentration of muscle enzymes occurs 1-3 days after exercise,
In studies, it is noted that repeated work performed after 14 days leads to muscle pain. That is, the peak of super-recovery has already passed and the muscles have returned to the initial level of fitness.
Obviously, the rate of recovery processes is directly dependent on the intensity of the work performed. The lower the intensity, the shorter the breaks between repeated training of the muscle group can be, the higher the intensity of work — the longer the recovery period should be.